Ideas

  • Tyler Cowen and Ben Southwood (2019), Innovation & scientific progress.

  • Nicholas Bloom et al. (2019), Are Ideas Getting Harder To Find? “Our robust finding is that research productivity is falling sharply everywhere we look. Taking the U.S. aggregate number as representative, research productivity falls in half every 13 years — ideas are getting harder and harder to find. Put differently, just to sustain constant growth in GDP per person, the U.S. must double the amount of research effort every 13 years to offset the increased difficulty of finding new ideas.”

Inventors & opportunity

  • Alexander M. Bell et al. (2019), Who Becomes an Inventor in America? The Importance of Exposure to Innovation.

  • Valentina Assenova (2019), Why are Some Societies more Entrepreneurial than Others? Evidence from 192 Countries over 2001-2018. “Rather, the evidence shows that the strongest predictors of cross-national variation in entrepreneurial activity were normative, with social norms being the most strongly associated with entrepreneurialism and rates of organizational founding.”

  • Jurgen Schmidhuber (2010), Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century.

Rates

  • Nicholas Bloom et al. (2019), A Toolkit of Policies to Promote Innovation.

  • Enrico Moretti et al. (2019), The Intellectual Spoils of War? Defense R&D, Productivity and International Spillovers.

  • Paul Schmelzing (2019), Eight centuries of global real interest rates, R-G, and the ‘suprasecular’ decline, 1311-2018.

Agglomeration

  • Chang-Tai Hsieh and Enrico Moretti (2019), Housing Constraints and Spatial Misallocation. “We quantify the amount of spatial misallocation of labor across US cities and its aggregate costs. Misallocation arises because high productivity cities like New York and the San Francisco Bay Area have adopted stringent restrictions to new housing supply, effectively limiting the number of workers who have access to such high productivity. Using a spatial equilibrium model and data from 220 metropolitan areas we find that these constraints lowered aggregate US growth by more than 50% from 1964 to 2009.”

  • Enrico Moretti (2019),The Effect of High-Tech Clusters on the Productivity of Top Inventors.

  • 📖 Alain Bertaud (2018), Order Without Design: How Markets Shape Cities.

  • Wolfgang Dauth et al. (2018), Matching in Cities.

Regions

  • Richard A.L. Jones (2019), A Resurgence of the Regions: rebuilding innovation capacity across the whole UK. Author commentary.

  • Diane Coyle and Marianne Sensier (2018), The Imperial Treasury: appraisal methodology and regional economic performance in the UK

Measurement

  • 📖 Diane Coyle (2016), GDP: A Brief but Affectionate History.